成都朗阁>托福考试>托福阅读 | 题型解法之修辞目的题

托福阅读 | 题型解法之修辞目的题

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/1/22 11:02:43
  • 编辑:成都朗阁

托福阅读考试时间比较紧,若在某个问题上纠结时间太长,就会导致题目做不完,甚至影响接下来的各单项考试。那如何克服上述问题呢?朗阁老师将在本文中进行讲解。

托福阅读题型解法之修辞目的题

 

朗阁海外考试研究中心  樊秋霜

 

在托福阅读中,有一种题型题干中含有“why”, “in order to”, “purpose”之类的词汇,大部分考生的解答是:仔细审题——带入原文——看其所在段落大意——选择正确答案。诚然,这是阅读做题的基本方法,在思路上没有任何问题,但是有一个缺点:耗时间。如若学生的基本功,即词汇和长难句分析比较扎实,那自然又快又准;可若学生基本功稍有欠缺,必然是耗时甚至解不对。大家都知道,托福阅读考试时间比较紧,若在某个问题上纠结时间太长,就会导致题目做不完,而且心情上也会受到影响,甚至影响接下来的各单项考试。那如何克服上述问题呢?

 

一、问题形式

首先,我们来看一下此题型的问题形式。

1. Why does the author mention X ?(注意:要区分开细节题含有why的题干。一般会问“为什么某事物能导致另外某一事物的出现?”或“为什么某事物对另一事物非常重要?”等都是细节题。)

2. The author mentions X in order to?

3. The purpose of mentioning X is to?

 

二、考题用意

我们可以从托福独立写作入手,分析该题目用意。独立写作文章结构一般是:主观点——分观点1及论证——分观点2及论证——分观点3及论证——结论。在论证分观点的时候,可以用举例论证,反证以及说理论证。以举例论证为例,大家看下面一段话:

For one thing, watching TV offers us a chance to broaden our horizon. I have a disabled twelve-year-old cousin who knows what is happening around the world through watching TV without stepping out of the room, and when we talk about the things she is interested, she will respond to us immediately. And it is the television that makes her happy.

 

该句话的首句是分论点,后面的“I have a disabled twelve-year-old cousin who knows what is happening around the world through watching TV without stepping out of the room, and when we talk about the things she is interested, she will respond to us immediately. And it is the television that makes her happy.”是为了证明第一句话。

 

相同的,ETS会在题干中问为什么会提到该例子。当然了,除了例子之外,还有其他的类型,接下来进行深入剖析。

 

三、问题分类

该类题型题干中的关键词在原文中都会被highlight, 如下图:

 

 

 

下图题干中的“a nut, a peach, a cherry”在原文中都已经被highlight。我们根据题干关键词所在句子(原文中)有没有举例以及该句子在段落的什么位置分为以下几种情况:

 

1. 假设题干关键词所在句子在原文文章中间,而且有for example, for instance, such as, like等举例词汇出现,那么我们就可以判断,本句话是举例,为了证明上一句话(一般情况下都是这样)。那么,做题方法是:

第一步:看本句话,理清本句话的主谓宾和意思。

第二步:看本句话上一句,找出主谓宾并总结大意,答案就在本句话。

第三步:看本句话下一句,一般不用看该句子,但为了验证答案准确性,可以看一下该句子跟其上面两句话之间的联系。

 

答案一般都在第二步出现,也就是本句话上一句(以下简称上一句或上句)。为什么呢?因为托福阅读文章的结构一般都是总分,段落也是。既然关键词所在句子是举例,那么其之前的句子一般都是总结句,也就是说,答案就是上一句。然后,我们根据上句话的意思,找出意思一致的选项,即为答案。同时,也可以使用排除法,将会更加快捷:排除原文中没有明确指出的选项;排除跟原文说法相反的选项(对于任何题型,该答案都不对,因为违背了文章的真实性)。

 

接下来,大家看一道例题:

The picture of Teotihuacán that emerges is a classic picture of positive feedback among obsidian mining and working, trade, population growth, irrigation, and religious tourism. The thriving obsidian operation, for example, would necessitate more miners, additional manufacturers of obsidian tools, and additional traders to carry the goods to new markets. All this led to increased wealth, which in turn would attract more immigrants to Teotihuacán. The growing power of the elite, who controlled the economy, would give them the means to physically coerce people to move to Teotihuacán and serve as additions to the labor force. More irrigation works would have to be built to feed the growing population, and this resulted in more power and wealth for the elite.

 

In the paragraph above, the author discusses the “The thriving obsidian operation” in order to

A. explain why manufacturing was the main industry of Teotihuacán

B. give an example of an industry that took very little time to develop in Teotihuacán

C. illustrate how several factors influenced each other to make Teotihuacán a powerful and wealthy city

D. explain how a successful industry can be a source of wealth and a source of conflict at the same time

 

根据刚才所述规律,首先我们看到题干关键词所在句子中有for example, 那么本句话是为了证明上一句。那我们转向看上句话,即:The picture of Teotihuacán that emerges is a classic picture of positive feedback among obsidian mining and working, trade, population growth, irrigation, and religious tourism. 本句话主干翻译过来的意思是:T城崛起的场景是一幅经典的场景,在该场景里,黑曜石的开采挖掘,贸易,人口增长以及额外的贸易者同时出现。也就是说,因为后面几种状况的出现,导致了T城的出现。接下来,我们利用排除法做题。首先看A选项,解释为什么加工制造页是T城的主要工业,错误,原文没有明确指出;B选项,举了一个工业花很少时间去发展的例子,错误,原文没有明确指出;C选项,正确,说明了好几个因素互相结合,使T成为一个富裕的强国,符合原文意思;D选项,解释一个成功的工业是如何成为财富和冲突的来源的,错误,原文中没有明确指出。由此可见,答案是C。

 

看另外一个例子:

Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Island were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus, the speed's chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard-like the shell of a nut-for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperm the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seeds to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.

 

Why does the author mention a nut, a peach, and a cherry?

A. To indicate that some seeds are less likely to survi

  • 分享:

填写以下表单,免费领取
雅思、托福、SAT备考资料。

朗阁头条

猜你喜欢

关注我们

[关闭]    

领取说明:请先手机领取提取密码,然后点击到云盘下载。

*我们为您提供免费的课程咨询,并且非常尊重您的个人隐私,所有个人信息将严密保管。

下载地址: