成都朗阁>托福考试>托福听力 | 态度倾向在托福听力中的运用

托福听力 | 态度倾向在托福听力中的运用

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/1/22 11:02:43
  • 编辑:成都朗阁

本篇托福培训,朗阁老师就重点讲析态度倾向在托福听力中的运用。

态度倾向在托福听力中的运用

 

朗阁海外考试研究中心  吴灵燕

 

首先,直入主题来看一道题目:

TPO27 Lecture1 Marine Biology第三题:

What is the professor's opinion about coral transplantation?

A. It is cost-effective.

B. It is long-term solution.

C. It is producing encouraging results.

D. It does not solve the underlying problems.

 

从听力题型上来说,这是一个典型的态度题。态度题的解题,常见的有两大类考点信号词,一是个人观点表达的连接词,比如说I mean, I think, in my opinion, as for me……等等,二是可以表达态度的形容词,比如说interesting, amazing, controversial……等等。

 

文章中讲到,珊瑚礁(coral reef)遭到了bleaching(漂白)的破坏,然后有种给珊瑚移植的方法(如题:coral transplantation),而后对于这种方法,教授是这么评价的:There has been some success with this, but it’s still somewhat controversial. 这时候对于考点比较敏感的同学可能已经捕捉到了这段话可能要来重点了,因为出现了态度题的考点信号词(controversial),有些科学家非常赞成这种移植珊瑚的方法,But in my opinion, transplanting coral should only be used as … well as a last resort. I mean, this method is not only costly but it’s … well even if it’s successful, it still fails to address the ongoing problem…

 

在这段观点的自我表达过程中,老师用了in my opinion, I mean这样的态度表达连接词。再看题目,我们发现A选项说cost-effective, 而文章中说是costly, 与原文说反了,B选项说是一个long term solution, 但文章中是fail to address the ongoing problem, 依然与原文说反了,C选项亦是如此,只有D选项是和professor所说的fail to address the ongoing problem符合的。综上,这是解答态度题的传统方法。

 

简单点,思考问题的方式简单点。

 

不妨这样想,既然是态度题,那么我们首先应该确定的是态度的倾向,正面积极觉得好,负面消极觉得不好,或者是不发表意见中立态度。那么这样想,我们就会发现在这个题目中老师是觉得这个coral transplantation(珊瑚移植)的方法是不好的,也就是负面的,那么再去看选项,只有D选项是符合这个态度倾向的。用这种思路去解题,往往效果是事半功倍的。

 

再比如TPO34 Lecture2 environmental science:

首先我们要知道的前提背景是,文章中讲的是一种比较有用的处理垃圾的方式APS digestion (Anaerobic Phased Solids Digestion)无氧状态下分解固体垃圾。

其中这篇文章的第二题:

What is the professor’s opinion about the use of landfills to manage solid organic waste?

A. Landfills should be expanded to accommodate more types of waste.

B. Landfills are not a suitable long-term solution for solid organic waste disposal.

C. Landfills should be built farther away from population centers.

D. Landfills would be an effective means of recycling solid organic waste from farms.

 

Landfill(土地掩埋法),首先大家稍微有一些常识就能知道这种处理垃圾的方法好不好了,况且和主旨(APS digestion)的方式相对比比较的话就更加相形见绌了。所以就这个典型的what is the professor’s opinion …这样的态度题而言,通过态度倾向的选择,也就是landfill这种方法不好,就能知道选择B选项了。

 

那么态度倾向到底是不是只能用于态度题呢?答案是NO, 态度倾向的确认可以帮助我们辨认出一些比较明显的错误。

还是这篇文章,接下来的第三题:

What does the professor imply about processing solid organic waste in equipment designed for processing wastewater?

A. It is an economical way to process solid waste.

B. It is practical only for treating large amounts of solid waste.

C. It is not an efficient way to process solid waste.

D. It could reduce the cost of treating wastewater.

 

首先审题,这道题目在讲的是用处理废水的方法处理固体垃圾,显然,这肯定也是不太好的,不然都没必要讲解这种非常厉害的APS digestion了,所以从这个态度倾向的角度出发,这道题目中的A/C选项都是在说好的一方面(economical way/reduce the cost)就可以排除掉了。简直so easy有没有!

 

对于态度倾向的表达和理解,往往可能会形成一些陷阱和思维定式。在这边,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师们再给大家举两个非典型的例子。

 

TPO34 Lecture1 Botany植物学:

文章提到:The relationship between pollinators and plants are delicate. So any number of factors can disturb them. Human development is one. And agriculture is generally believed to be the most harmful. It can fragment habitats in a variety of ways, reducing the number of pollinators.

 

听到这再加上我们对于人类破坏活动的直接印象,基本大概脑补出了好像professor是一个消极负面的态度,但是文章中对于此的评价却是:Recent studies have shown that the disruption of one aspect of the pollination cycle doesn’t usually lead to the extinction of other species. It turns out that plant-pollinator relationships are more adaptable to change than we thought. 研究表明,这种传粉授粉的关系并没有那么脆弱,并不会直接导致物种的灭绝,因为各种关系是比较具有适应能力的。

 

11. What is the professor’s opinion about the effect of agriculture on pollination ecology?

A. She fears the effect may be more widespread than previously believed.

B. She believes the effect will ultimately prove to be beneficial.

C. She thinks the harmfulness of agriculture may be overstated.

D. She is surprised there is so little research on the subject.

 

所以这道题目选的是C选项,也就是农业的危害性被放大了。

 

TPO12 Lecture4 Environmental Science第五题:

What is the professor’s opinion about the future of Kramer Junction power plant?

A. He is uncertain about the future of the Kramer Junction plant.

B. He believes the Kramer Junction plant will become a major source of power.

C. He is certain the Kramer Junction plant will not be able to increase its capacity.

D. He thinks the Kramer Junction plant will have many competitors.

 

由于大多数的新方法的内容都是正面积极的,很多学生会思维定式地觉得这肯定是一种很好的有效的方法,然而并不是。

 

Right now the utility companies are interested in increasing the capacity of Cremer Junction Plant, but only time will tell if it will ever develop into a major source of power for that region.

 

文章里提到,只有时间能够告诉你only time will tell…….所以选A。

 

所以,考生需要在练习听力的过程中结合态度题的解题方法,考点信号词是一回事,另外不妨从整体段落性去理解文章的态度倾向,这种大范围的把握对于很多同学来说都是能比较容易获取的,相较于去听懂细节的几句话,这种态度倾向的预判也能快速排除一些错误的干扰选项。

 

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